What Is a Class in Scripting?


Larry Thompson

A class is an essential concept in scripting languages, allowing us to create objects that group together related data and functions. It serves as a blueprint or template for creating individual instances, providing structure and organization to our code.

Defining a Class

In scripting languages like JavaScript or Python, we can define a class using the class keyword. Let’s take a look at an example of a simple JavaScript class:

class Person {
  constructor(name, age) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;

  sayHello() {
    console.log("Hello, my name is " + this.name + "!");

In this example, we define a class called Person. The constructor method is a special method that gets called when we create a new instance of the class. It takes parameters like name and age, which are used to initialize the object’s properties.

The class also has another method called sayHello(), which simply logs a greeting message to the console using the object’s name property.

Creating Instances of a Class

To create an instance of a class, we use the new keyword followed by the class name and any required arguments for its constructor. Let’s create two instances of our Person class:

// Create two instances of the Person class
let person1 = new Person("Alice", 25);
let person2 = new Person("Bob", 30);

// Call the sayHello() method on each instance
person1.sayHello(); // Output: Hello, my name is Alice!
person2.sayHello(); // Output: Hello, my name is Bob!

Here, we create two instances of the Person class, person1 and person2, with different names and ages. We can then call the sayHello() method on each instance to see the personalized greetings.

Class Inheritance

Inheritance is another powerful feature of classes that allows us to create a new class based on an existing one. The new class, called a subclass, inherits all the properties and methods of its superclass.

To define a subclass, we use the extends keyword followed by the name of the superclass. Let’s extend our Person class to create a new Employee class:

class Employee extends Person {
  constructor(name, age, role) {
    super(name, age);
    this.role = role;

  introduce() {
    console.log("I am an employee. My role is " + this.role + ".");

// Create an instance of Employee
let employee = new Employee("Carol", 35, "Manager");

// Call the sayHello() method inherited from Person
employee.sayHello(); // Output: Hello, my name is Carol!

// Call the introduce() method defined in Employee
employee.introduce(); // Output: I am an employee. My role is Manager.

In this example, we define a subclass called Employee that extends the superclass Person. The constructor in the subclass uses the super() method to call the superclass’s constructor and pass the name and age arguments. It then initializes the role property specific to the Employee class.

The Employee class also has a new method called introduce(), which logs a message about the employee’s role.

We can create an instance of the Employee class and call both inherited methods from Person and the introduce() method defined in Employee.


In summary, a class is a fundamental concept in scripting languages that allows us to create objects with their own properties and methods. It provides structure and organization to our code, making it easier to manage and maintain. Additionally, classes can be extended through inheritance, allowing us to create subclasses that inherit properties and methods from their superclasses.

By understanding classes and how they work in scripting languages, we can write more modular, reusable, and organized code.

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