What Are the Types of Binary Tree in Data Structure?


Scott Campbell

A binary tree is a fundamental data structure in computer science that represents hierarchical relationships between elements. It consists of nodes, where each node can have at most two child nodes – a left child and a right child. This unique characteristic enables efficient searching, insertion, and deletion operations.

Types of Binary Trees

Binary trees can be classified into several types based on their specific properties and constraints. Let’s explore some of the commonly encountered types:

1. Full Binary Tree

A full binary tree is a type of binary tree where every node has either zero or two children.

In other words, all the internal nodes have two children, while the leaf nodes have no children. This property ensures that all levels except the last level are completely filled.

2. Complete Binary Tree

A complete binary tree is a binary tree in which all levels, except possibly the last one, are completely filled from left to right. The last level is filled from left to right consecutively without any missing nodes.

3. Perfect Binary Tree

A perfect binary tree is a binary tree where all the internal nodes have exactly two children, and all leaf nodes are at the same level. This means that every level of the tree is completely filled with 2^level number of nodes.

4. Balanced Binary Tree

A balanced binary tree is a type of binary tree in which the height difference between the left and right subtrees of any node is at most one. This property ensures that no subtree is significantly deeper than another subtree, leading to efficient operations such as searching and insertion.

5. Degenerate (or Pathological) Binary Tree

A degenerate binary tree is a tree in which each parent node has only one associated child node. This type of binary tree essentially degenerates into a linked list, as there is a linear relationship between nodes, resulting in poor performance for certain operations.


Understanding the different types of binary trees is crucial for designing efficient algorithms and data structures. Each type has its own unique properties and applications. Whether you are working on search algorithms, data compression, or network routing, a firm grasp of binary trees will undoubtedly prove invaluable.

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