What Are the Type of Geographical Data?


Angela Bailey

Geographical data is a vital component of geographic information systems (GIS) and plays a crucial role in various industries such as urban planning, transportation, environmental management, and market research. Geographical data can be classified into different types based on its nature and representation. In this article, we will explore the various types of geographical data.

Vector Data

Vector data represents geographic features as points, lines, and polygons. It uses coordinates to define the position and shape of these features.

Each feature is represented by a set of attributes that provide additional information about it. Vector data is commonly used to represent discrete objects such as buildings, roads, rivers, and administrative boundaries.

Raster Data

Raster data represents geographic features as a grid of cells or pixels. Each cell contains a value that represents some attribute or characteristic of the area it covers. Raster data is often used to represent continuous phenomena such as elevation, temperature, precipitation, land cover, and satellite imagery.

Attribute Data

Attribute data refers to non-spatial information associated with geographic features. It describes the characteristics or properties of these features. Attribute data can include various types of information such as names, addresses, population figures, land use categories, and other quantitative or qualitative attributes.

Topological Data

Topological data represents the spatial relationships between different geographic features. It defines how features are connected or related to each other. Topological relationships include adjacency (features that share a common boundary), connectivity (features that are connected through a shared point), containment (features that are completely contained within another feature), and proximity (features that are close to each other).


Metadata is descriptive information about geographical data. It provides details about the source, quality, accuracy, and other characteristics of the data.

Metadata is crucial for understanding and interpreting geographical data effectively. It helps users determine the fitness for a specific purpose and ensures proper data management and integration.


In summary, geographical data can be categorized into several types, including vector data, raster data, attribute data, topological data, and metadata. Each type of data serves a specific purpose and plays a significant role in GIS analysis and decision-making processes. Understanding these different types of geographical data is essential for effectively utilizing GIS technology and extracting valuable insights from spatial information.

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