Data structures are an essential component of computer science and programming. They play a crucial role in organizing and managing data efficiently. The main objectives of data structures are to provide a means for storing and retrieving data, as well as facilitating efficient operations on that data.

## 1. Efficiency

One of the primary objectives of data structures is to achieve efficiency in terms of time and space complexity. Efficient data structures ensure faster execution of operations and optimal utilization of memory resources.

## 2. Storage

Data structures aim to provide efficient storage mechanisms for different types of data. They allow for the organization and allocation of memory in a way that optimizes space usage.

### 2.1 Arrays

**Arrays** are one of the simplest yet fundamental data structures. They store elements of the same type in contiguous memory locations, making it easy to access elements using their indices.2 Linked Lists

**Linked lists** consist of nodes that contain both the data and a reference (or link) to the next node in the sequence. This structure allows for dynamic allocation and efficient insertion/deletion operations at any position.3 Stacks

**Stacks** follow the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle, where elements can only be inserted or removed from one end called the top. Stacks are often used for function calls, expression evaluation, and undo mechanisms.4 Queues

**Queues**, on the other hand, follow the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) principle, where elements are inserted at one end called the rear and removed from another end called the front. Queues find applications in scheduling, resource allocation, and handling of requests.

## 3. Organization

Data structures allow for the logical organization of data to simplify access and manipulation. They provide mechanisms to group related data elements together, making it easier to process them collectively.

### 3.1 Trees

**Trees** are hierarchical data structures that consist of nodes connected by edges. They have a root node at the top and child nodes branching out below. Trees are used for organizing hierarchical relationships such as file systems, organization hierarchies, and decision-making processes.2 Graphs

**Graphs** represent a collection of interconnected nodes called vertices. They are widely used to model complex relationships between entities, such as social networks, transportation systems, and computer networks.

## 4. Searching and Sorting

Data structures provide efficient algorithms for searching and sorting operations on the stored data.

### 4.1 Binary Search Trees

**Binary search trees (BSTs)** enable fast searching by organizing elements in a binary tree structure where each node has two children: left and right. The left child is smaller than the parent, while the right child is greater.2 Hash Tables

**Hash tables**, also known as hash maps or dictionaries, use a hash function to map keys to array indices for efficient retrieval of values. Hash tables are widely used for fast lookup operations in databases and caches.

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In conclusion, the main objectives of data structures are to achieve efficiency in terms of time and space, provide efficient storage mechanisms, facilitate organization and manipulation of data, and enable efficient searching and sorting operations. Understanding these objectives is essential for developing optimized algorithms and designing scalable systems.