Is Python Object Oriented Programming Language?


Scott Campbell

In the world of programming, there are different paradigms that guide the way we write and organize our code. One popular paradigm is object-oriented programming (OOP).

OOP focuses on organizing code into objects, which can be thought of as real-world entities that have properties (attributes) and behaviors (methods).

Python, a versatile and powerful programming language, is often associated with OOP. But is Python truly an object-oriented programming language? Let’s delve deeper into this question to gain a better understanding.

Defining Object-Oriented Programming

Before we can determine if Python fits the OOP mold, let’s first define what it means to be an object-oriented programming language. In OOP, the key concepts are:

  • Encapsulation: The idea of encapsulating data and methods within objects.
  • Inheritance: The ability to create new classes based on existing ones, inheriting their attributes and behaviors.
  • Polymorphism: The concept of using a single interface to represent different types of objects.

The Object-Oriented Features of Python

Python supports all the fundamental features of object-oriented programming mentioned above. Let’s explore each one in more detail:


In Python, you can define classes that encapsulate both data (in the form of attributes) and behavior (in the form of methods). This allows you to bundle related data and functionality together in a single unit. For example:

class Person:
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def greet(self):
        return f"Hello, my name is {}."

In this example, the Person class encapsulates the name attribute and the greet method.


Python supports inheritance, allowing you to create new classes based on existing ones. This promotes code reuse and allows for the creation of hierarchies. Consider the following example:

class Animal:
    def __init__(self, name): = name

    def speak(self):
        raise NotImplementedError("Subclasses must implement this method.")

class Dog(Animal):
    def speak(self):
        return "Woof!"

class Cat(Animal):
    def speak(self):
        return "Meow!"

In this example, both the Dog and Cat classes inherit from the Animal class and override its speak method.


In Python, you can achieve polymorphism by using methods with the same name but different implementations in different classes. This allows you to treat objects of different classes in a uniform way. Let’s see an example:

class Shape:
    def area(self):
        raise NotImplementedError("Subclasses must implement this method.")

class Rectangle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, width, height):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height

    def area(self):
        return self.width * self.height

class Circle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def area(self):
        return 3.14 * (self.radius ** 2)

In this case, both the Rectangle and Circle classes define an area method, but each implementation is specific to the class.


Based on its support for encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, it is clear that Python aligns with the principles of object-oriented programming. Python’s syntax and built-in features make it easy and intuitive to work with objects, making it a popular choice for developers looking to leverage the power of OOP.

In summary, Python is indeed an object-oriented programming language that fully embraces the concepts and features of OOP. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced programmer, understanding and utilizing object-oriented programming in Python can greatly enhance your code’s organization and reusability.

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