Is Pandas Object Oriented Programming?


Heather Bennett

Is Pandas Object Oriented Programming?

When it comes to data analysis and manipulation in Python, Pandas is one of the most popular libraries used by data scientists and analysts. However, there is often confusion about whether Pandas follows Object Oriented Programming (OOP) principles. In this article, we will explore the underlying structure of Pandas and understand its relationship with OOP.

Introduction to Pandas

Pandas is an open-source library built on top of NumPy that provides powerful data structures and data analysis tools for handling structured data. It introduces two primary classes: Series and DataFrame. The Series class represents a one-dimensional array-like object containing a sequence of values with an associated index, while the DataFrame class represents a two-dimensional tabular data structure with labeled axes (rows and columns).

The Role of OOP in Pandas

Pandas does use some concepts from Object Oriented Programming, but it is not considered a purely object-oriented library. While many of its functionalities can be utilized through OOP principles, it also allows for procedural programming approaches.


Pandas makes use of inheritance to create specialized classes based on the core Series and DataFrame classes. For example, subclasses like TimeSeries, Categorical, and DataFrameGroupBy inherit functionality from their respective parent classes. This allows for hierarchical organization of functionality and promotes code reuse.


Pandas encapsulates data within objects like the Series and DataFrame classes. This helps in managing large datasets more efficiently, as it provides methods and attributes that allow for easy manipulation and analysis of the encapsulated data.


Pandas exhibits polymorphic behavior by providing a consistent interface across different data structures. This means that you can perform similar operations on both Series and DataFrame objects, making it easier to work with different types of data.

Pandas as a Hybrid Library

Pandas can be considered a hybrid library that combines elements of both object-oriented and procedural programming paradigms. It provides flexibility by allowing users to choose the programming style that suits their needs.

Procedural Programming:

  • Pandas allows you to perform various data manipulation tasks using procedural programming approaches. For example, you can use functions like pd.merge() or pd.concat() to combine multiple datasets without explicitly creating objects.
  • You can also access individual columns or rows using indexing and slicing operations.

Object-Oriented Programming:

  • Pandas provides extensive support for OOP principles, allowing users to create custom classes or extend existing ones with additional functionality.
  • You can define your own methods or override existing ones to tailor Pandas’ behavior according to your specific requirements.


In summary, while Pandas borrows some concepts from Object Oriented Programming, it is not strictly an object-oriented library. It uses concepts like inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism but also supports procedural programming approaches. This hybrid nature gives users the flexibility to choose the programming style that best suits their needs.

Regardless of whether you prefer object-oriented or procedural programming, Pandas remains a powerful tool for data analysis and manipulation in Python.

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