# How Do You Perform Arithmetic Operations in Shell Scripting?

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Larry Thompson

Shell scripting is a powerful tool that allows you to automate tasks and perform various operations on your computer. One common task that you may encounter while writing shell scripts is performing arithmetic operations. In this tutorial, we will explore how to perform arithmetic operations in shell scripting.

## Arithmetic Operators

Before we dive into performing arithmetic operations, let’s first familiarize ourselves with the arithmetic operators available in shell scripting:

• Subtraction (-): Subtracts one number from another.
• Multiplication (*): Multiplies two numbers.
• Division (/): Divides one number by another.
• Modulus (%): Returns the remainder of a division operation.

## Performing Arithmetic Operations

To perform addition or subtraction in shell scripting, you can use the \$(( )) construct. For example:

result=\$((10 + 5))
echo "The result of addition is: \$result"

# Subtraction
result=\$((20 - 8))
echo "The result of subtraction is: \$result"

The output of the above code will be:

The result of addition is: 15
The result of subtraction is: 12

### Multiplication and Division

To perform multiplication or division in shell scripting, you can use the same \$(( )) construct. For example:

# Multiplication
result=\$((4 * 6))
echo "The result of multiplication is: \$result"

# Division
result=\$((20 / 5))
echo "The result of division is: \$result"

The output of the above code will be:

The result of multiplication is: 24
The result of division is: 4

### Modulus

The modulus operator returns the remainder of a division operation. To calculate the modulus, you can use the \$(( )) construct as well. For example:

# Modulus
result=\$((27 % 5))
echo "The result of modulus is: \$result"

The output of the above code will be:

The result of modulus is: 2

## Conclusion

In this tutorial, we explored how to perform arithmetic operations in shell scripting using various arithmetic operators. We learned about addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus operators. By leveraging these operators and the \$(( )) construct, you can perform complex calculations and automate mathematical tasks in your shell scripts.

Now that you have a solid understanding of performing arithmetic operations in shell scripting, you can confidently incorporate them into your own scripts to enhance their functionality.