How Do You Make a Graph in Python Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

In this tutorial, we will learn how to make a graph using the Python data structure. Graphs are a fundamental data structure used to represent connections or relationships between different entities.

Creating a Graph

To create a graph in Python, we can use various libraries such as NetworkX, Matplotlib, or Plotly. Here, we will focus on using the NetworkX library.


To install NetworkX, you can use pip:

pip install networkx

Importing the Library

After installing NetworkX, we need to import it into our Python script:

import networkx as nx

Adding Nodes and Edges

In a graph, nodes represent entities and edges represent the connections between them. Let’s start by creating an empty graph:

G = nx.Graph()

We can now add nodes and edges to our graph:

# Adding nodes

# Adding edges
G.add_edge('A', 'B')
G.add_edge('B', 'C')

Drawing the Graph

To visualize the graph, we can use the Matplotlib library. First, let’s import it:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

We can then draw our graph using the draw() function from NetworkX:


By default, the nodes are represented as circles, and the edges are represented as lines connecting the nodes.

Customizing the Graph

We can customize our graph by changing its appearance. For example, we can:

  • Color: Change the color of nodes and edges
  • Size: Adjust the size of nodes and edges
  • Style: Use different shapes for nodes and styles for edges

To change the color of nodes, we can use the node_color parameter in the draw() function. Similarly, to change the color of edges, we can use the edge_color parameter. Here’s an example:

nx.draw(G, node_color='red', edge_color='blue')

To adjust the size of nodes and edges, we can use the node_size and width parameters respectively. For example:

nx.draw(G, node_size=500, width=2)

We can also change the shape of nodes using the node_shape, and style of edges using parameters like style, dashed, or dotted.

Saving the Graph Image

If you want to save your graph as an image file, you can use Matplotlib’s savefig() function.savefig(‘graph.png’)


In this tutorial, we learned how to create a graph using the Python data structure. We explored how to add nodes and edges, draw the graph using Matplotlib, and customize its appearance. With this knowledge, you can now visualize various relationships and connections in your data using graphs.

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