How Do You Do Shell Scripting in Linux?


Heather Bennett

Shell scripting is an essential skill for any Linux user. With shell scripting, you can automate repetitive tasks, perform system administration tasks, and even create complex applications. In this tutorial, we will explore the basics of shell scripting in Linux.

What is Shell Scripting?

Shell scripting is the process of creating and running scripts written in a shell programming language. The most commonly used shell on Linux systems is the Bash shell (short for Bourne Again SHell).

Creating a Shell Script

To create a shell script, you need to follow these steps:

  1. Create a new file with a .sh extension. For example,
  2. Open the file in a text editor.
  3. Add the necessary commands to the file.
  4. Save and close the file.

You can use any text editor to write your shell scripts. Some popular text editors include Vim, Nano, and Emacs.

Writing Your First Shell Script

Let’s start by writing a simple “Hello World” script. Open your favorite text editor and create a new file called


echo "Hello World!"

In this script, we use the echo command to print “Hello World!” to the terminal. The first line of the script (#!/bin/bash) is called a shebang and tells the system which interpreter to use for executing the script.

Running Shell Scripts

To run a shell script, you need to make it executable. You can do this by running the following command:

chmod +x

After making the script executable, you can run it by typing:


The “./” before the script name is necessary to specify that the script is in the current directory.

Variables in Shell Scripts

Variables are used to store values that can be reused throughout a script. In shell scripting, you don’t need to declare a variable before using it. You can assign a value to a variable using the following syntax:


For example, let’s create a script that asks for the user’s name and then greets them:

echo “What is your name?”
read name
echo “Hello, $name!”

In this script, we use the read command to get input from the user and store it in the variable “name”. We then use the echo command to print a personalized greeting.

Conditional Statements

Shell scripts can also include conditional statements to perform different actions based on certain conditions. The most commonly used conditional statement is if-else.

echo “Enter a number:”
read number

if [[ $number -gt 0 ]]; then
echo “$number is positive.” elif [[ $number -lt 0 ]]; then
echo “$number is negative.”

echo “$number is zero.” fi

In this script, we ask the user for a number and then use if-else statements to determine whether it is positive, negative, or zero.


Loops are another important feature of shell scripting. They allow you to repeat a block of code multiple times. The two most commonly used loops in shell scripting are for and while.

for (( i=1; i<=5; i++ )); do echo "Iteration $i" done

In this script, we use a for loop to print the phrase “Iteration x” five times, where x represents the current iteration number.


Shell scripting is a powerful tool that allows you to automate tasks and perform system administration tasks on Linux systems. In this tutorial, we covered the basics of shell scripting, including script creation, running scripts, using variables, conditional statements, and loops.

With practice and experience, you can leverage shell scripting to streamline your workflow and increase productivity on your Linux machine.

Discord Server - Web Server - Private Server - DNS Server - Object-Oriented Programming - Scripting - Data Types - Data Structures

Privacy Policy